How many different commands can I run?


echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq | xargs ls -1 |\
grep -ve '^$' -e '^/' | sort | uniq | wc -l

What commands can I execute? What commands can I autocomplete with ? How do I even Linux?

Let's find out by exploring some common linux command line tools and IO redirection!


The $PATH environment variable

There is a special environment variable called PATH that, simply put, contains the list of directories that your shell will search in for commands, sepated by :s.

For example, if I have a command named ls, in order to run it, to location of the ls command must be inside of a directory in my $PATH. The which command will tell us where a command is located (or nothing if the command doesn't exist), so we can use that to find the location of ls.

which ls # outputs /bin/ls

To see the contents of an environment variable we can echo it, and sure enough if we echo our $PATH, we will see /bin as one of the directories.

echo $PATH

That output is a little hard to process, however, let's clean it up!


Piping is a core concep in unix. Basically, we can take the output of one command and give it as the input to another through the | operator.

echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n'

That is what we are doing with the translate, or tr command. The tr command will translate a given string to something else. Here we are using it to translate the :s to newlines, \n, so that each directory will be displayed on a separate line.

The final output of our command at this point is each directory in our PATH on a newline.

echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq

Next we will take our output and give it to sort, which, as the name implies, sorts our list of directories. This in combination with the uniq command will remove any duplicates we might have.

At this point we will have a list of sorted, non-duplicated, directories separated by newlines.


xargs will execute a command with whatever arguments are sent to it (actually, it's a little more nuanced than that, but that's how we can think of it for now). Lets look at a simple example:

echo -e 'one\ntwo\nthree'

This will output


If we pipe this to xargs, we can execute a command with whichever parameters we pipe to xargs

# the -e flag allows echo to process special characters so that we will
# actually get a newline instead of a literal `\n`
echo -e 'one\ntwo\nthree' | xargs echo 'number: '

will print out 'number: ' plus whatever we pipe to it, in this case 'one,two,three', so our output will be

number: one two three

We can use this with ls as well.

echo -e 'dir_one\ndir_two' | xargs ls

This would run the ls command with dir_one and dir_two as arguments.

So the next step in our command

# the -1 flag for ls will print the output in one column
echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq | xargs ls -1

will give us a list of all the files inside of each directory in our path, along with some blank lines and the name of each directory before the list of files in it.

Let's continue.. onto a newline

The next step continues our command onto a newline:


The escaping backslash immediately precedes the newline character, and this tells our shell to ignore the newline and continue processing the command.

So this:

echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq | xargs ls -1 |\

just says that our command continues on the next line.

This is useful when we have longer commands to make them more readable, or when writing shell scripts.


Grep is a very powerful tool that allows us to search through text for patterns. Grep can be used to search for a pattern in a file, recursively through all files in a directory and subdirectories, or even search for patterns in whatever is piped to it.

Here's a simple example

# the echo command will output
# > one
# > two
# > three
# each on a newline
echo -e 'one\ntwo\nthree' | grep 'two'

Will give us the output of just two.

If we search for something that is common to more than one line of the output we will see all lines that match

echo -e 'one\ntwo\nthree' | grep 'o'
# will output
# > one
# > two

We can also use grep to show us lines that do not match a pattern.

# the -v flag will only output lines that do not match a pattern

echo -e 'one\ntwo\nthree' | grep -v 'o'
# will output
# > three

echo -e 'one\ntwo\nthree' | grep -v 'two'
# will output 
# > one
# > three

If we looked at our output from our command in it's current state, we will notice that it is not just a list of files, but also some directory names and blank lines. We want to get rid of those lines, so we will use grep to search for those lines and only show lines that do not match to give us just a list of files.

Let's take a look at the relevant part of the command

grep -v -e '^$' -e '^/'

We know the -v flag only gives us lines that do not match the pattern we are searching for, and the -e flag lets us specify more than one pattern to seach for. We can write this a little shorter by combining the first two flags.

grep -ve '^$' -e '^/'

Most unix command line tools let us combine the single letter flags together. You've probably seen an example of this with ls.

ls -l -a -h
# same as 
ls -lah

The expressions inside the single quotes after each -e flag are Regular Expressions. The focus of this post is not explaining how to use regular expressions, but I will explain what these two do.

^$ looks for an empty line, and ^/ looks for a line that starts with a /. By telling grep we only want to see lines that do not match those patterns, we can effectively filter those lines out of our input.

echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq | xargs ls -1 |\
grep -ve '^$' -e '^/' 

At this point we will have just a list of files in our $PATH.

Wrapping up

Next we'll add on another sort | uniq to remove any duplicate files and then pass along that list to wc.

echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq | xargs ls -1 |\
grep -ve '^$' -e '^/' | sort | uniq | wc -l

wc is a nice little tool that lets us see the number of words, lines, characters, or bytes in a file (or input piped to it). By specifying the -l flag we are saying we only want the number of lines. Since each file is on a separate line, this will give us the number of commands that are in out $PATH!